Style guide and format

This is a guide to help authors supply manuscripts in the correct style. For a comprehensive guide click here or if you have a more specific query, please e-mail:


Most common wordprocessing formats are accepted for text and tables, although Word (.doc or .docx) is preferred. Images should be submitted as GIF, TIFF, EPS or JPEG files and must not be embedded within the Word file.

Tables and illustrations

Tables should be kept to a minimum and should be created in Word. The legend should clearly explain what data the table is presenting without the need to refer back to the text. Tables should not duplicate information presented in figures.

Line figures and photographs will normally be reproduced at column width (88 mm). Histograms should be presented in a simple, two-dimensional format, with no background grid; graded colour tones should be avoided.

Digital images should be sent as GIF, TIFF, EPS or JPEG files, in CMYK format, at a minimum resolution of 300 dpi at an image size of 8.5 cm across. Please label them to correspond with the list of numbered figure captions; for example ‘Figure 3.jpg’ or ‘Figure 7B.jpg’, etc.


Measurements should be expressed in the metric system or in SI units. Temperatures should be given in °C. Centrifugation speeds should be given in g.

All abbreviations should be spelled out in full the first time they are used in the text with the exception of the following: click here

Medicines should be referred to by the generic name (recommended International Non-Proprietary Names [rINNs]), as listed on the website of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, followed by the proprietary name and manufacturer in brackets when first mentioned; eg, fenbendazole (Panacur; Intervet).

Parasitic infections should be referred to according to the Standardised Nomenclature of Parasitic Diseases (SNOPAD) guidelines, which are summarised by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology.

Spelling should be in British English.

Research should be written in the third person.


References should be given in the Vancouver format.

In the text references should be numbered as they appear. In the reference list they should be given in numerical order.


All authors’ names and initials should be given followed by the date, title of the paper, full title of the journal, volume number and full page range.

For example: 1 YANG, P. C., CHU, R. M., CHUNG, W. B. & SUNG, H. T. (1999) Epidemiological characteristics and financial costs of the 1997 FMD epidemic in Taiwan. Veterinary Record 145, 731-734


Book references should include all authors’ names and initials followed by the date, chapter title if appropriate, the full title of the book, the edition, the editors, publisher and page numbers of material referred to.

For example: 2 MORRIS, J. A. & SOJKA, W. J. (1985) Escherichia coli as a pathogen in animals. In The Virulence of Escherichia coli. Reviews and Methods. Ed M. Sussman. Academic Press. pp 47-77


Proceedings should include all authors’ names and initials followed by the date, the title of the paper given at the meeting, proceedings title, the editors (if applicable), town, country, date of event, and page numbers (if applicable).

For example: 3 MILLER, W. (1976) A state-transition model of epidemic foot-and-mouth disease. Proceedings of an International Symposium: New Techniques in Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics. Reading, July 12 to 15, 1976. p 56


Websites should include all authors’ names and initials followed by the date, the title of the page, website address and date accessed.
For example: 4 DEFRA (2001) Explanation of Foot and Mouth Restrictions. restrictions/explanation.asp. Accessed August 24, 2001

Supplements (Suppl)

Goes after volume number, before page numbers, not in bold.

Accepted for publication

Reference goes in reference list in above format except ‘(In press)’ is added after the journal title instead of the volume and page number(s). If available the doi number should be added.


Reference does not go in the reference list. Instead, list all authors (surnames + initials) with ‘unpublished observations’: (F. Jones, T. Bloggs, unpublished observations).


References always go first.


Treated as MAC for alphabetical order, ST treated as Saint.


Keep like this in authors’ names after last initial, for example, KING, S. W., Jr, JONES, A. T., III.

Keep style

As in original title with respect to capital letters, for example, upper case for names of dogs, Thoroughbreds, and so on if this is the case in the original, but change to lower case after a colon (for example, Part 1: the stomach . . ., not Part 1: The stomach).

Personal communications

Should be cited within the text and follow the form (A. B. Smith, personal communication).


Should be styled as for books as far as possible.


For example, PhD thesis, Name of the university at which it was undertaken.

Number of authors

If the number of authors listed is more than 12, please list the first six and then add ‘and others’