Table 5

How risk and uncertainty are conveyed via consent forms

Sample textSource
“I understand that all anaesthetic and surgical procedures involve some risk to the animal”.CF1
“Operations and procedures, however small, which require sedation or anaesthesia to facilitate their performance, carry a slight risk to the patient. These risks may be increased if your pet is old, overweight or ill and in a number of other circumstances”.CF6
“I acknowledge and agree to the risks involved and understand that in extreme circumstances these may include loss of life”.CF44
‘Risks and complications associated with diagnosis and treatment may include: ____________’CF32
“I accept that possible complications from the procedure may occur such as sepsis, wound breakdown, haemorrhage and anaesthetic reaction. Further possible complications: ________________”CF50
“I also accept that the success of medical or surgical treatment cannot be guaranteed”.CF21