Table 1

The adapted entrustment and supervision scale, translated to veterinary EPAs

The expanded entrustment and supervision scale*Adaptations used in the current study
1. Not allowed to practise EPA.
1a. Inadequate knowledge/skill; not allowed to observe.
1b. Adequate knowledge, some skill; allowed to observe.
2. Allowed to practise EPA only under proactive, full supervision.
2a. As coactivity with supervisor.
2b. With supervisor in room ready to step in as needed.
  1. Execution of the task with direct, proactive supervision.

3. Allowed to practise EPA only under reactive/on-demand supervision.
3a. With supervisor immediately available, all findings and decisions double-checked.
3b. With supervisor immediately available, key findings and decisions double-checked.
3c. With supervisor distantly available (eg, by phone), findings and decisions promptly reviewed.
  1. Execution of the task under reactive/on-demand supervision with supervisor immediately available, all findings and decisions double-checked.

  2. Execution of the task with reactive supervision, on request and quickly available, findings and decisions promptly reviewed.

4. Allowed to practise EPA unsupervised.
4a. With remote monitoring (eg, next day check-in for learner questions).
4b. Without monitoring.
  1. Execution of the task with supervision at a distance and/or post-hoc and with remote guidance (eg, next day check-in for learner questions).

  2. Execution of the task unsupervised without guidance.

5. Allowed to supervise others in practising the EPA.
  • *See Chen et al.24

  • EPA, entrustable professional activity.