Table 3

Mean (SEM) differences across metatarsi III/IV (ΔMT) for kinematic (temporal=relative stance-phase duration) and kinetic (peaks=foot load and toe-off) pedogram variables between no pathology cows and such with pathologies of various hindlimb locations. *Part I: group C v group P; part II: group C v group LOC1; part III: group LOC1 v group LOC2

VariablePart IPart IIPart III
Group C†
(n=12)
Group P‡
(n=64)
Group C
(n=12)
LOC1§
(n=43)
LOC1
(n=43)
LOC2¶
(n=21)
MeanSEMMeanSEMMeanSEMMeanSEMMeanSEMMeanSEM
Kinematic (temporal)Stance phase (%)** 0.91††5.44821.49‡‡   2.230.91††5.34224.81‡‡2.82224.81††3.08314.70‡‡4.118
Kinetic (peak)Foot load (g)0.76††1.2115.13‡‡0.5280.76††1.2035.85‡‡0.6465.85††0.6743.641‡‡0.978
Toe-off (g)0.34††0.4702.10‡‡0.1990.34††0.4672.24‡‡0.2462.240.2691.800.375
  • *The pedogram variable was calculated as the difference across limbs within cows.

  • †Group C: cows without clinical pathology of the locomotor tract, skin score less than 1 (no alteration or hairless patch, skin unaltered without swelling).10

  • ‡Group P: cows with limb pathologies at LOC1 or LOC2.

  • §LOC1: cows with digit pathologies (including pathologies of the fetlock joint and/or the common digital flexor tendon sheath).

  • ¶LOC2: cows with proximal limb pathologies (proximal to the fetlock joint).

  • **Proportion of time (%) that the foot is in contact with the ground relative to the total gait cycle duration (interval between foot load peak and toe-off peak).6 7

  • ††,‡‡Within each part (I, II, III), means with different superscripts within rows differ significantly (P<0.05).