Table 1

Demographic and management characteristics of the 27 participating farms

CharacteristicsResponseFarms (n)
Age of farmer (years)18–305
31–405
41–505
>5012
Education level of farmerBasic schooling3
O level/GCSE/A level4
HNC/HND/NVQ16
University bachelor’s degree4
Total herd size100–1996
200–29912
300–69910
>7005
Total number of cows in milk1-995
100–19911
200–2994
>3007
Calving patternYear-round22
Seasonal—Spring4
Seasonal—Autumn1
Primary cow typeHolstein16
British Friesian4
Channel Island3
Crossbreed2
Other2
Waste milk feedingYes—all calves13
Yes—beef calves only7
No7
Dry cow antimicrobial therapyBlanket therapy18
Selective therapy9
  • Basic schooling: no qualifications gained; blanket therapy: all dry cows treated with intramammary antimicrobial; farmer: self-described main treatment decision maker; selective therapy: certain dry cows not treated with intramammary antimicrobial based on somatic cell count and mastitis risk assessment.

  • GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; HNC, Higher National Certificate; HND, Higher National Diploma; NVQ, National Vocational Certificate.