Table 1

Morphological features of traditional (moderate) and modern (exaggerated) head conformation

Level of characterisationHead conformation
TraditionalModern type
PrimaryA narrower headA wider head
A flatter, lower and longer headIncreased doming, that is, a shorter and higher head
A shallow stop, with less doming of the head towards the front as compared with the backA deep and pronounced stop, with increased amount of doming towards the front of the head compared with the back
SecondaryA defined occiputA poorly defined occiput
Increased distance between nose and eyesDecreased distance between nose and eyes
Smaller eyes, better contained within the orbit*Large, bulging eyes*
  • *Large and small eyes are terms used by the breeding fraternity and do not reflect globe size, which is constant, but the palpebral aperture so that dogs with ‘large eyes’ have less orbital covering.