The results of the systematic review of the economic impact of BVD from 1991 to 2015

PaperCountryDairy (D), beef (B) or beef fattening (F)Endemic (End) or epidemic (Epi)Standard (St) or severe (Se)Method of economic assessmentCostsSource of costs and lossesLossesFigure produced per year per cow (year as per paper unless stated, and exchange rate if relevant)Updated figure (£)
Bennett59 UKDEnd/EpiStDecision analysisTx (TI), Tx (PI)LiteratureA, ML (TI), ML (PI) Im, TI, Inf, Con, M (PI), M (TI) YGC (PI), YGC (TI)£13.12–£98.9624.50–185
Pasman and others30 NetherlandsDEnd/EpiStMarkov chain (MC) simulation modelD, DisLiterature, estimation, observationM (TI), YGC (TI),
M (PI), ML (PI), ML (TI), Inf, A, YGC (PI), Con, PC
Year 1 cost – 49.55 Dfl =
naive cost – 852.71 Dfl
2.77 NLG/£
Sørensen and others32 DenmarkDEnd/EpiStStochastic simulation modelF, BLiteratureA, Inf, YGC (PI), Con, M (PI)0–10,000 DKr (50 cow herd)=200 DKr
9.73 DKr/£ (1993)
Carman and others29 CanadaDEpiSeCase studyNAFarm dataM (PI), M (TI), ML (PI), ML (TI), A$C40,000 – £100,000 per herd (40–191 cows) = $209–$2500. $C1.94/£ (1993)198–2370
Bennett and others33 Great BritainD/BEnd/EpiStCost–benefit spreadsheet modelNAResearch, VLAML, A, M, PC£5.2–£31.0 m (3.9 m cows, 1996)
Houe13 DenmarkDEnd/EpiSt/SeCost–benefit spreadsheet modelNAField cases, literatureR, TI, ML (TI), M (TI), A, Inf, Con, YGC (PI), M (PI)US$20–US$57 per calving
$1.75/£ (1992)
Dufour and others60 FranceNANANASimulation modelNANANA25.5 F = €4.21
Bennett34 UKDEnd/EpiStDecision analysis spreadsheetNABennett59 M (PI), M (TI), Con, A, Inf, ML (TI), TI£25.2–£90.7 (1999)39.50–142
Chi and others35 CanadaDEnd/EpiStPartial budget, risk and sensitivity analysesVet, Tx, L, RepResearchML (A), ML (TI), PC, M (PI), M (TI), A, YGC (PI), Inf$C2422/50 cow herd
Bennett38 Great BritainD/BEnd/EpiStCost–benefit spreadsheet modelNABennett and others33 ML, A, M, PC£2–£12 m (3.7 m cows, 1999)
Houe24 WorldwideDEnd/EpiSt/SeReviewNAReview paperNAUS$10–US$40 m/million calvings
Stott and others39 ScotlandBEnd/EpiStLinear programmingBS, Rep, LLiterature, SAC, vet interviewsIm, Con, YGC (TI), M (PI), A, Inf, PC£20 status susceptible
£22 status unknown
Gunn and others40 UKDEpiStMC simulation modelNALiteratureML, M (PI)£10,300 (low median)
£10,400 (high median)
Gunn and others41 ScotlandBEnd/EpiStMC simulation modelVet, L, Dx, Tx, RepLiterature, SAC, vet interviewsIm, Con, YGC (TI), A, M (PI), TI, Inf, PCTransmission scenario low – £32.74, intermediate – £37.06, high – £40.5345.30–56.10
Fourichon and others42 FranceDEpi/EndSt/SePartial budget, no stochasticityRep, Tx,Literature, vet interviewsA, Inf, ML (A), M (PI), ML (TI), Mas, SCC, RP, M, TI€75 (moderate) – 133 (severe) €1.46/£
(no milk quota)
Gunn and others43 EuropeDEndStStochastic simulation modelVet, Tx, RepExpert opinionInf, PC, Mas, E, R, ML22% BVD-free annuity/farm
>£4200/65 cow = £64.60
Valle and others44 NorwayD/BEndStStochastic simulation modelVet, TxPrevious study on herd level effectsInf, ML (TI), ML (PI), PC, M (TI), M (PI), TI40–50 m Norwegian krone/year =
77 Norwegian krone per calving
10.5 Norwegian krone/£ (1993)
Bennett and  IJpelar22 Great BritainD/BEndStCost–benefit spreadsheet modelD, VacBennett,38 expert opinionML, Inf, PC, M, A£25.4–£61.1 m (3.2 m cows)
= £7.94–£19.1
Compton and others45 New ZealandDEndStCase analysisNAFarm dataA, Inf, MLNZ$90
Heuer and others46 New ZealandDEndStPartial budget, retrospective case vs controlFFarm dataInf, A, (PR, 1st serve CR, CCI) PC, ML, M (PI)NZ$87
Barbudo and others48 ScotlandBEnd/EpiStMC and epidemiology modelB, FLiterature, Gunn and others41 Inf, A£22–£4326.50–51.80
Reichel and others47 New ZealandDEnd/EpiSt/SeDecision analysisSeparate costingsVoges and others61 M (PI), ML (PI), Mas (PI), YGC (PI)NZ$11,344 (322 cows/herd)=NZ$35.19
NZ$2.83/£ (2006)
Hessman and others3 USAFEndSt/SePartial budget, retrospective case vs controlTx (TI), Tx (PI), FFarm dataTI, R, Im, YGC (PI), YGC (TI), M (PI), M (TI), MD, PCUS$41.8–US$93.5
Stott and others49 UKBEnd/EpiSt/SeSimulation modelRep, Vet, L (£1)Literature, expert opinionIm, Con, YGC (PI), YGC (TI), A, Inf, M (PI), PC£0–£40
Häsler and others50 SwitzerlandD/BEndStPartial budget spreadsheet modelVet, Tx (TI), Tx (PI), D, Dis, LLiterature, expert opinionM (PI), M (TI), PC, A, ML (PI), ML (TI), TI16.04 m CHF (1.5 m cows)
=10.7 CHF
1.99CHF/£ (2008)
Stott and others18 IrelandDEnd/EpiStSimulation modelVet, Tx (PI), Tx (TI), RepWeldegebriel and others17 ML (TI), ML (A) PC, Im, Mas, Inf, E, R, TI€63
€1.23/£ = £51.2
BSimulation modelVet, Rep Tx (TI), Tx (PI), L,Stott and others,49 SAC, vet interviewsIm, PC, Con, YGC (PI) YGC (TI), A, Inf, M (PI)€32 (€29 small – €38 large)
€1.23/£ = £21.1
FPartial budget MC spreadsheetVet, Tx (TI), L, Tx (PI)Expert panel, Gunn and others41 YGC (TI), YGC (PI)€19
€1.23/£ = £15.4
Smith and others51 USABEndStStochastic modelNALiterature, surveys, expert opinionA, M (TI), M (PI), TI, YGC (TI), YGC (PI), Inf, ConUS$205,429 (460 cows/10 years) = $44.66
US$1.65/£ = £27.0
Knific and Zgajnar52 SIoveniaDEndStMC simulationRep, F, Vet, Tx,Jeric (2011)ML (TI), ML (PI), PC, YGC (TI), YGC (PI), A, M (TI), M (PI), Inf, Mas, RP€189
= £152.4
Szabára and Ózsvári53 HungaryDEndStPartial budget estimationsNAOwn calculationsML (TI), A, M (TI), M (PI), PC,€13.7
= £11.0
Santman-Berends and others54 NetherlandsDEndStStochastic simulation modelVac, D, Rep, VetHogeveen55 A, Con, YGC (PI), YGC (TI), ML, TI, PC, M (TI), M (PI), Inf€30.8 m/year (1.6 m dairy cows) = $19.25 (2014)
1.24€/£ = £15.5
Karabozhilova and others19 EnglandD/BEndStPartial budget analysisTx (TI), Tx (PI), Dis, Rep, Vet, D, F, BLiterature, case reports, Häsler and others50 M (PI), M (TI), PC, ML (PI), ML (TI), TI, Inf, ADairy – £21.32 and £42.63; beef – £26.78 and £53.5631.50
  • Premature cull costs may include replacement costs minus slaughter value. TI losses may also be represented by treatment costs.

  • A, abortion; B, decreased bedding costs; BS, biosecurity costs; BVD, bovine viral diarrhoea; Cd, newborn calf death; Con, congenital defects; D, diagnostics; Dis, disposal costs; E, enteritis; F, decreased feed costs; Im, immunosuppression; Inf, infertility (days open, returns to service); L, increased labour costs; M (PI) (MD included), mortality of PIs; M (TI), mortality of acutely infected animals; Mas, mastitis; ML (A), milk loss following abortion; ML (PI), milk loss from PI cow; ML (TI), milk loss from acute infection; NA, (data) not available or applicable; PC, premature culling; R, respiratory disease; Rep, replacement costs; RP, retained placenta; SAC, Scottish Agricultural College; SCC, decreased milk quality; TI, acute infection; Tx (PI), PI treatment costs; Tx (TI), acute infection treatment costs; V, vaccination; Vet, veterinary cost; YGC (PI), youngstock growth check of PIs; YGC (TI), youngstock growth check of acute infected animals;