TABLE 5:

Trials at high risk of bias

TrialConditionSpeciesOutcome measureData extractedSummary effect measureEffect size (95 per cent CI)Direction of effectP value
HomeopathyPlacebo
Individualised homeopathy/treatment
A02MastitisCattleTotally cured quarters8 of 584 of 43OR1.56 (0.44, 5.56)Homeopathy0.49
Non-individualised homeopathy/treatment
A05DiarrhoeaCattleDuration of diarrhoea (days)Mean 3.1, sd 1.72, n=24Mean 2.9, sd 1.72, n=20SMD0.11 (-0.48, 0.71)Placebo0.71
A09
Animals with ‘pasty’ stools5 of 68 of 9OR0.63 (0.03, 12.41)Placebo0.76
A11Induction of farrowingPigsPresence of uterine contraction14 of 180 of 23OR151.4 (7.58, 3024)Homeopathy0.001
A06InfertilityCattleGestating cows49 of 5847 of 56OR1.04 (0.38, 2.85)Homeopathy0.94
A28Held to first service20 of 5011 of 26OR0.91 (0.35, 2.38)Placebo0.85
A03MastitisCattleNone usableXXXXXX
A10Unaffected quarters34 of 5115 of 52OR4.93 (2.14, 11.38)Homeopathy0.0002
Non-individualised homeopathy/prophylaxis
A23EndometritisCattleAbsence of endometritis231 of 417126 of 200OR0.73 (0.52, 1.03)Placebo0.07
A22Infectious diseases (respiratory)PigsAbsence of respiratory tract disease436 of 480411/480OR1.66 (1.11, 2.49)Homeopathy0.01
A25Metabolic disturbance postpartumGoatsNone usableXXXXXX
  • CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, sd Standard deviation, SMD Standardised mean difference. Italic text indicates trials with a potential risk of bias due to funding source (see also Table 1)