TABLEĀ 4:

Trials at low or unclear risk of bias

TrialConditionSpeciesOutcome measureData extractedSummary effect measureEffect size (95 per cent CI)Direction of effectP value
HomeopathyPlacebo
Individualised homeopathy/treatment
A01MastitisCattleAcute mastitis scoreMean, 12.2, sd 4.72, n=21Mean 13.7, sd 4.60, n=16SMD-0.31 (-0.97, 0.34)Homeopathy0.35
Non-individualised homeopathy/treatment
A04Fear of firework noisesDogsImproved (that is reduced) fear response25 of 3426 of 38OR1.28 (0.46, 3.57)Homeopathy0.63
A08MastitisCattleNone usableXXXXXX
A07OsteoarthritisDogsImproved mobility index10 of 144 of 15OR6.88 (1.35, 35.06)Homeopathy0.02
Non-individualised homeopathy/prophylaxis
A24DiarrhoeaPigsAbsence of diarrhoea per litter17 of 2410 of 26OR3.89 (1.19, 12.68)Homeopathy0.02
A26Growth ratePigsPiglets' final body weightMean 9.4, sd 2.66, n=39Mean, 8.2, sd 2.66, n=40SMD0.45 (0.00, 0.89)Homeopathy0.05
A27Reproductive performancePigsParturition69 of 9422 of 31OR1.13 (0.46, 2.78)Homeopathy0.79
  • CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, sd Standard deviation, SMD Standardised mean difference

  • Bold text indicates trials deemed reliable; Italic text indicates trials with a potential risk of bias due to funding source (see also Table 1)