TABLE 1:

Summary of four rabbits with exfoliative dermatitis associated with a mediastinal mass

Case 1Case 2Case 3*Case 4
Signalment7.5 years, male castrated, 1.4 kg6 years, male castrated, 2.6 kg4 years, male castrated, 1.4 kg6 years, female, intact, 974 g
Clinical signsCachexia, depressionCachexia, depression, nasal discharge, dyspnoeaInitially none; finally anorexia and dyspnoeaInitially none; finally dyspnoea
Dermatological signsMultifocal alopecia, erythema, follicular casts and seborrheaMultifocal alopecia, erythema, follicular casts and seborrheaMultifocal alopecia, erythema, follicular casts and seborrheaMultifocal alopecia, erythema, scaling, follicular casts and crusting
Histological description skinOrthokeratosis, lymphocytic exocytosis, lymphocytic mural and interface folliculitis, absent sebaceous glandsOrthokeratosis, lymphocytic exocytosis, lymphocytic mural and interface folliculitis, absent sebaceous glandsOrthokeratosis, lymphocytic mural folliculitis, absent sebaceous glandsOrthokeratosis, lymphocytic exocytosis, lymphocytic mural and interface folliculitis, absent sebaceous glands
Thoracic radiographMass in anterior mediastinumMass in anterior mediastinumNo mass on initial exam, not repeated radiographsMass in anterior mediastinum
Thoracic ultrasoundCystic structures within mass located cranial to base of the heartCystic structures within mass located cranial to base of the heartNot performedNon-cystic mass located cranial to base of the heart
Cytological description massPredominantly lymphoblasts with scattered eosinophils and macrophagesPredominantly small lymphocytes and few activated macrophagesNot performedLymphocytes and clusters of spindle cells
Histological description massConsistent with lymphoma: large number of lymphoblasts with signs of atypiaConsistent with thymoma: predominantly polygonal epithelial cells intermingled with small lymphocytesConsistent with thymoma: predominantly polygonal epithelial cells intermingled with small lymphocytesNot performed
Treatment TopicalOil soak, shampoo, aloe vera sprayOil spray (1:100 with water), shampooPropylene glycolPropylene glycol
Systemic OutcomeEssential fatty acids Complete resolution within 5 months, euthanasia after 8 monthsEFA Worsening, euthanasia after 7 monthsCyclosporine, Mygliol 812†, EFA Complete resolution within 2 months, euthanasia after 14 monthsCyclosporine, Mygliol 812†, EFA Worsening, euthanasia after 5 months
  • *This case has partly been described previously (Jassies-van der Lee and others 2009)

  • †Mygliol 812 – a medium-chain triglyceride solution

  • EFA Essential fatty acids