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Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in nasal and laryngeal swab specimens in endemically infected pig herds
  1. Nicolás Moiso1,
  2. Maria Pieters2,
  3. Facundo Degano1,
  4. Claudina Vissio1,3,
  5. Pablo Camacho1,
  6. Abel Estanguet1,
  7. Julián Parada1,4 and
  8. Pablo J Tamiozzo1
  1. 1Departamento de Patología Animal, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Argentina
  2. 2Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
  3. 3Instituto para el Desarrollo Agroindustrial y de Salud (IDAS), UNRC- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Río Cuarto, Argentina
  4. 4Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Río Cuarto, Argentina
  1. Correspondence to Mr Pablo J Tamiozzo; ptamiozzo{at}ayv.unrc.edu.ar

Abstract

Background Apparently, laryngeal swabs (LS) are more sensitive than nasal swabs (NS) and allow earlier detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by PCR. However, antecedents about the compared detection of M hyopneumoniae with NS and LS in growing pigs, from naturally infected herds, are lacking in the literature. Thus, this study compared the PCR detection of M hyopneumoniae from NS and LS in pigs of various ages.

Methods A longitudinal study was performed at two farms where NS and LS were collected from three consecutive groups of 20 pigs at 3, 6, 10, 16 and 22 weeks of age. All samples were analysed by nested PCR for M hyopneumoniae detection.

Results The probability of PCR detection of M hyopneumoniae was higher in LS for pigs of all ages (odds ratio (OR)=1.87; 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 1.31–2.67) and in 22-week-old pigs (OR=4.87; 95 per cent CI 2.86–8.30). The agreement between both sample types was low to moderate (kappa 0.087–0.508), highlighting that M hyopneumoniae does not appear to colonise the respiratory tract in a generalised and consistent fashion.

Conclusions The results suggest that LS could be employed at different ages to achieve greater bacterial detection. Considering that LS is a minimally invasive, highly sensitive sample compared with the traditional NS, it could be suggested to employ this sample type for M hyopneumoniae detection in naturally infected pigs.

  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
  • detection
  • nasal swabs
  • laryngeal swabs
  • PCR
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Footnotes

  • Funding This study was financially supported in part by PICT 0442/2015 FONCyT-ANPCyT-MinCyT, República Argentina, and PPI 2016–2018, SeCyT-UNRC. FD was holder of an 'Incentivo a las Vocaciones Científicas' scholarship during the development of this study (CIN-SPU-Ministerio de Educación), República Argentina.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Production systems and herds participating in this study followed their own management practices. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the National University of Río Cuarto, according to the international guidelines of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article.

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