This study aimed to describe bacteria isolated from the reproductive tract of mares and to identify changes in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to those antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of equine endometritis. A total of 4122 equine uterine swabs were collected from mares suffering from reproductive tract disorders in the period 2010–2017. Aerobic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing using agar disc diffusion were performed on each sample. Aerobic bacteria were isolated from 3171 of 4122 (76.9 per cent) samples. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Escherichia coli (885/3171, 27.9 per cent) and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (791/3171, 24.9 per cent), confirming previous findings from the literature. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E coli, S equi subspecies zooepidemicus and Klebsiella pneumoniae changed over time. A statistically significant decrease in antimicrobial efficacy of cefquinome against E coli was observed over the years, as well as of ampicillin, cefquinome and penicillin against S equi subspecies zooepidemicus. The high frequency of resistant bacteria isolated in the present work proceeds in the same way as indicated by surveillance data on the huge antibiotic use in Italy. As a result, testing and monitoring programmes of antimicrobial efficacy are crucial to consciously using antibiotics and preserving their effectiveness both for veterinary and human medicine.
- equine endometritis
- bacterial culture
- uterine swab
- antimicrobial susceptibility
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Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article.
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