Article Text

other Versions

Computed tomographic examination of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) with suspected Mycobacterium pinnipedii infection
  1. K. Jurczynski, DVM1,
  2. J. Scharpegge, DVM2,
  3. J. Ley-Zaporozhan, MD3,
  4. S. Ley, MD3,
  5. J. Cracknell, BVMS, CertVA, CertZooMed, MRCVS4,
  6. K. Lyashchenko, PhD5,
  7. R. Greenwald, MD5 and
  8. J. P. Schenk, MD3
  1. Duisburg Zoo, Muelheimer Strasse 273, 47058 Duisburg, Germany
  2. Heidelberg Zoo, Tiergartenstrasse 3, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
  3. Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
  4. Longleat Safari and Adventure Park, Warminster, Wiltshire, BA12 7NJ, UK
  5. Chembio Diagnostic Systems, 3661 Horseblock Road, Medford, NY 11763, USA
  1. E-mail for correspondence jurczynski{at}

Ten South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) were presented for clinical evaluation and diagnosis of tuberculosis following known exposure to Mycobacterium pinnipedii. CT was used to determine whether foci of calcification in mediastinal lymph nodes, typically associated with pinniped tuberculosis, could be detected and whether CT was a useful diagnostic modality, in conjunction with other tests, for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in this species. Blood was collected from the caudal gluteal vein of each animal for serological testing using commercially available serological tests (ElephantTB STAT-PAK and DPP Vet; Chembio Diagnostic Systems) and a multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), carried out at Chembio to verify the in-house kits. In four of nine animals that underwent CT scanning, lesions consistent with pinniped tuberculosis were apparent and these were confirmed at subsequent postmortem examination. The five remaining animals did not show any abnormalities on CT, with three being negative on serological tests, which were considered to be normal and potentially used as reference images for healthy sea lions. One animal could not be CT scanned due to its large size and weight (510 kg).

Statistics from


  • Provenance not commissioned; externally peer reviewed

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.