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Reliability of ultrasonography at the fifth intercostal space in the diagnosis of reticular diaphragmatic hernia
  1. A. Kumar, MVSc, PhD and
  2. N. S. Saini, DVM, MVSc, PhD
  1. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab, India
  1. E-mail for correspondence drashwanikumar{at}

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RETICULAR diaphragmatic hernia has been described as a congenital and acquired condition in cows (Singh and others 1996, Saini and others 2001, Saini and others 2007, Athar and others 2010, Bellavance and others 2010) and buffaloes (Saini and others 2000, Mohindroo and others 2007, Athar and others 2010). In this condition, most commonly the reticulum becomes herniated into the thoracic cavity via a tear in the diaphragm. A tentative diagnosis of reticular diaphragmatic hernia can be made on the basis of clinical signs and auscultation findings (Radostits and others 2007), and can be confirmed by plain and contrast radiography of the cranioventral abdominal region (Kumar and others 1980, Misk and Semieka 2001). Recently, ultrasonography has been reported as a non-invasive imaging modality to diagnose reticular diaphragmatic hernia in bovine animals based on the visibility of reticular wall and its motility at the fourth and fifth intercostal spaces (ICS) from the right side (Mohindroo and others 2007, Saini and others 2007, Athar and others 2010). Cows and buffaloes constitute the majority of domesticated bovine animals worldwide, and these animals have a similar external morphology. There is a lack of literature on ultrasonographic studies of the topographic location of the reticulum of healthy cows and buffaloes in advanced stages of pregnancy.

This short communication describes a study of the reliability of detecting the reticular wall and its motility ultrasonographically at the fifth ICS in non-pregnant and pregnant cows and buffaloes to diagnose reticular diaphragmatic hernia. As well as highlighting the differences in topographic location of the reticulum in healthy cows and buffaloes, this report also describes the most reliable diagnostic indicator of reticular diaphragmatic hernia in bovids.

The study was conducted on 74 animals (18 cows and 56 buffaloes). Out of these, 20 …

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