Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Canine collars: an investigation of collar type and the forces applied to a simulated neck model
  1. Anne Carter1,
  2. Donal McNally2 and
  3. Amanda Roshier3
  1. 1 School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University – Brackenhurst Campus, Southwell, Nottinghamshire, UK
  2. 2 University of Nottingham Faculty of Engineering, Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  3. 3 School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Anne Carter, School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University - Brackenhurst Campus, Southwell NG25 0QF, UK; anne.carter{at}


Background Dog collars have the potential to cause harm when the dog pulls on the lead. This study aimed to determine the effects of collar type and force applied using the lead on the pressure on a simulated neck model.

Methods Seven collars and a slip lead were tested on a canine neck model. This consisted of a plastic cylinder ‘neck’, with a pressure sensor beneath the collar. A range of forces were applied to the lead representing different interactions: firm pull (40 N), strong pull (70 N) and jerk (mean force 141 N). Contact area of the collar and pressure on the neck were recorded.

Results Collars exerted a pressure of between 83 kPa and 832 kPa on the model neck. There was a significant effect of collar type (F(7)=25.69, P<0.001) and force applied (F(2)=42.60, P<0.001) on the pressure exerted on the neck. Collar type (χ(7)=64.94, P<0.001), but not force applied (χ(2)=3.20, P=0.202), affected the contact area that the pressure was exerted over.

Conclusion Variation in the pressures exerted on the neck may have implications on comfort and the potential to cause injury. No single collar tested provided a pressure considered low enough to mitigate the risk of injury when pulling on the lead.

  • dog collar
  • injury
  • training
  • pressure
View Full Text

Statistics from


  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.