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Comparison of diagnostic methods for uterine health in dairy cattle on different days postpartum
  1. Hiromi Kusaka1,
  2. Ryo Hasegawa1,
  3. Namiko Nishimoto2,
  4. Masatoshi Kawahata2,
  5. Hiroshi Miura1,
  6. Motohiro Kikuchi1 and
  7. Minoru Sakaguchi1
  1. 1 Theriogenology, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Towada, Japan
  2. 2 Dairy, Forage Crop and Environment Section, Livestock Research Institute of the Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Centre, Noheji, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Professor Minoru Sakaguchi; saka99{at}


Background Uterine health status is a key factor for dairy management.

Methods The uteri of 28 Holstein cows were assessed weekly by three different methods: ultrasonography (UT), Metricheck device (MT) and cytobrush (CYT), during two weeks to seven weeks postpartum.

Results The percentage of cows with an MT-positive, UT-positive and CYT-positive result decreased dramatically at three weeks, four weeks and five weeks postpartum, respectively. The agreement of the results was poor or weak within six weeks postpartum (κ=0.09–0.35), and only at seven weeks moderate or good agreement was achieved (κ=0.60–0.70). When comparing the results obtained by UT and MT, 30 per cent or more of the total cows had conflicting results from postpartum three weeks to six weeks. The uterine health of cows was re-evaluated by the combined usage of UT and MT referring to CYT. The highest sensitivity was achieved when positive individuals were identified as either MT-positive or UT-positive, whereas the highest specificity occurred when results were positive by both MT- and UT- methods.

Conclusion The accuracy of early postpartum uterine health status by three methods depended heavily on the time postpartum. The combined use of UT and MT is a practical candidate for cow-side monitoring method of uterine health.

  • dairy cattle
  • reproduction
  • uterine health
  • ultrasonography
  • metricheck
  • cytobrush
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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Kitasato University approved the experimental protocol.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available on request.

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