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Antibiotic use in goats: role of experience and education of Missouri veterinarians
  1. Lauren Landfried1,
  2. Patrick Pithua2,3,
  3. Roger D Lewis4,
  4. Steven Rigdon5,
  5. Jonathan Jacoby4,
  6. Christopher C King4,
  7. Ellen K Barnidge6 and
  8. Carole R Baskin7,8
  1. 1 Nutrition and Dietetics, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
  2. 2 Population Health Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
  3. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States
  4. 4 Environmental and Occupational Health, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
  5. 5 Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
  6. 6 Behavioral Science and Health Education, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
  7. 7 Communicable Diseases, Vector, and Animal Care and Control, St. Louis County Department of Health, Berkeley, Missouri, USA
  8. 8 Environmental Health and Safety, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
  1. Correspondence to Lauren Landfried; lauren.landfried{at}


Background In a previous study, we found that rates of antibiotic residues in goat carcasses in Missouri were three times the published national average, warranting further research in this area.

Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of goat veterinarians to determine attitudes and practices regarding antibiotics, recruiting 725 veterinarians listed on the American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners (AASRP) website and 64 Missouri Veterinary Medical Association (MVMA) veterinarians.

Results We collected 189 responses (26.1%) from AASRP members (170 valid) and 8 (12.5%) from MVMA veterinarians totalling 178 responses. While the vast majority of all veterinarians indicated that they prescribed antibiotics less than half of the time, Missouri veterinarians indicated that they spent more time treating goats for overt disease like intestinal parasites and less time on proactive practices such as reproductive herd health management comparatively. While veterinarians agreed that antibiotic resistance was a growing concern, veterinarians outside of Missouri seemed more confident that their own prescription practices was not a contributor. Although nationally most veterinarians felt that attending continuing education classes was beneficial, 73.4% in other states attended classes on antibiotic use compared to only four of the nine Missouri veterinarians.

Conclusion Missouri veterinarians had less veterinary experience than veterinarians in other states, and this, in conjunction with low continuing education requirements in Missouri relative to most other states, may hinder development of more proactive and effective client–veterinary relationships.

  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobials
  • public health and regulatory medicine
  • professional education
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  • Contributors Conceptualisation and methodology for the project were determined by LL, EKB, PP, RDL, JJ, CCK and CRB. LL and EKB chose the software used to analyse the data and also validated the data analysis. LL performed the investigation, formal analysis, data curation, visualisation, project administration, funding acquisition and provided all of the resources needed to perform this study. The original draft was prepared by LL with reviewing and editing provided by LL, EKB, PP, RDL, SR, JJ, CCK and CRB. Visualisation: LL. Supervision of the project was provided by CRB.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the institutional review board at Saint Louis University.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available on request.

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