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Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in nasal and laryngeal swab specimens in endemically infected pig herds

Abstract

Background Apparently, laryngeal swabs (LS) are more sensitive than nasal swabs (NS) and allow earlier detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by PCR. However, antecedents about the compared detection of M hyopneumoniae with NS and LS in growing pigs, from naturally infected herds, are lacking in the literature. Thus, this study compared the PCR detection of M hyopneumoniae from NS and LS in pigs of various ages.

Methods A longitudinal study was performed at two farms where NS and LS were collected from three consecutive groups of 20 pigs at 3, 6, 10, 16 and 22 weeks of age. All samples were analysed by nested PCR for M hyopneumoniae detection.

Results The probability of PCR detection of M hyopneumoniae was higher in LS for pigs of all ages (odds ratio (OR)=1.87; 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 1.31–2.67) and in 22-week-old pigs (OR=4.87; 95 per cent CI 2.86–8.30). The agreement between both sample types was low to moderate (kappa 0.087–0.508), highlighting that M hyopneumoniae does not appear to colonise the respiratory tract in a generalised and consistent fashion.

Conclusions The results suggest that LS could be employed at different ages to achieve greater bacterial detection. Considering that LS is a minimally invasive, highly sensitive sample compared with the traditional NS, it could be suggested to employ this sample type for M hyopneumoniae detection in naturally infected pigs.

  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
  • detection
  • nasal swabs
  • laryngeal swabs
  • PCR
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