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Sociodemographic factors which predict low private rabies vaccination coverage in dogs in Blantyre, Malawi
  1. Stella Mazeri1,2,
  2. Andrew D Gibson1,2,
  3. Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort2,
  4. Ian G Handel2,
  5. Fred Lohr1,
  6. Jordana Burdon Bailey1,
  7. Dagmar Mayer1,
  8. Luke Gamble1 and
  9. Richard J Mellanby3
  1. 1 Mission Rabies, Cranborne, Dorset, UK
  2. 2 The Roslin Institute and The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Division of Genetics and Genomics, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Edinburgh, UK
  3. 3 The Roslin Institute and The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Division of Veterinary Clinical Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Hospital for Small Animals, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Edinburgh, UK
  1. E-mail for correspondence; richard.mellanby{at}


Although rabies kills approximately 60,000 people globally every year, vaccination of over 70 per cent of the canine population has been shown to eliminate the disease in both dogs and human beings. In some rabies endemic countries, owners are able to vaccinate their dogs through private veterinary clinics. However, uptake of dog vaccinations through private veterinary clinics is often low in many rabies endemic countries. In this study, the authors examined the sociodemographic factors which predicted low private rabies vaccination coverage in Blantyre, Malawi. Data on 23,205 dogs were recorded during a door-to-door rabies vaccination programme in 2016. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to identify factors associated with private rabies vaccination. Negative predictors of private vaccination included increasing poverty levels, higher housing densities, male dogs, pregnant or lactating dogs, and puppies and dogs allowed to roam. In contrast, neutered and healthy dogs had greater odds of being privately vaccinated. The present study demonstrated that low private rabies vaccination coverage can be accurately predicted by sociodemographic factors. This information may help inform public health interventions which deliver mass vaccination programmes in rabies endemic countries.

  • dog
  • rabies
  • malawi
  • vaccination
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  • Funding The Mission Rabies Blantyre Vaccination Campaign was funded by a grant from Dogs Trust. Worldwide Veterinary Service provided support and veterinary infrastructure, with sponsorship from The Marchig Trust.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Before vaccination of owned dogs, verbal informed consent was obtained from the person presenting the dog for vaccination. In the cases where an owner could not be identified, dogs were vaccinated in accordance with Government Public Health protocol, as the work was part of a public health campaign. The study was part of our mass rabies vaccination campaign which has been approved by The University of Edinburgh Veterinary Ethics Research Committee. Access to rabies vaccination was not influenced by the decision of an owner to participate in the study.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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