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Incidence, possible risk factors and therapies for pseudopregnancy on Dutch dairy goat farms: a cross-sectional study
  1. René Van den Brom1,
  2. Rianne Klerx2,
  3. Piet Vellema1,
  4. Karianne Lievaart-Peterson1,
  5. Jan Willem Hesselink2,
  6. Lammert Moll1,
  7. Peter Vos2 and
  8. Inge Santman-Berends3
  1. 1 Department of Small Ruminant Health, Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren BV, Deventer, Overijssel, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  3. 3 Department of Epidemiology, Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren BV, Deventer, The Netherlands
  1. E-mail for correspondence; r.vd.brom{at}


Pseudopregnancy is a frequently diagnosed reproductive disorder in (dairy) goats. This cross-sectional study evaluates the incidence, possible risk factors and therapies for pseudopregnancy on Dutch dairy goat farms. Two questionnaires, one for farmers and one for veterinarians, were designed and included questions about general farm demographics, breeding management, hormonal oestrous induction, treatment, measures for reduction and stress moments in dairy goats in the period June 1, 2016–May 31, 2017. In total, 43 farmers (21.5 per cent response rate) and 27 veterinarians (22.5 per cent response rate) completed the questionnaire. The annual incidence of pseudopregnancy varied between 1 and 54 per cent per farm, with a mean annual incidence of 17 per cent (95 per cent CI 0.14 to 0.21). In this study, we found a significant association between incidence of pseudopregnancy and a higher percentage of goats with an extended lactation (p<0.0001) and between incidence of pseudopregnancy and the number of ultrasound examinations per year (p<0.0001). The recommended therapy in literature consists of two administrations of prostaglandins. This was only correctly applied by 10 per cent of the farms. On 52 per cent of the farms, an overdose was used comparing to the recommended dose in literature.

  • pseudopregnancy
  • hydrometra
  • goats
  • incidence
  • risk factors
  • therapies
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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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