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Equine Analgesia
Caudal intercostal block for abdominal surgery in horses
  1. Benjamin M. C. Gingold,
  2. Kimberly M. Hassen,
  3. Matthew C. Milloway,
  4. Mathew Gerard and
  5. Alex W. Fowler
  1. Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences,
  2. Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
  1. e-mail: bmgingol{at}

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For horses undergoing celiotomy, limited systemic analgesic options are available in the perioperative period due to concern for the effects of sedation and ataxia on recovery. Unlike systemic analgesia, local anaesthesia of the abdominal wall will not cause sedation or ataxia, and thus should not impair recovery. In addition, local anaesthesia to the body wall should enhance abdominal muscle relaxation and therefore facilitate surgical closure. To alleviate perioperative ventral celiotomy incisional pain, we propose a caudal intercostal block for abdominal …

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