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Spatial and temporal patterns of Schmallenberg virus in France in 2016
  1. Kristel Gache1,
  2. Stephan Zientara2,
  3. Eric Collin3,
  4. Edith Authié4,
  5. Françoise Dion5,
  6. Emmanuel Garin6,
  7. Gina Zanella7 and
  8. Didier Calavas8
  1. 1GDS France (National Animal Health Farmers’ Organisation), Paris, France
  2. 2ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), Laboratory for Animal Health, UMR ANSES, INRA, ENVA, University Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, France
  3. 3Societe Nationale des Groupements Techniques Veterinaires, Paris, France
  4. 4LNCR (French National Laboratory for Health Controls in Breeding Stock), Maisons-Alfort, France
  5. 5Races de France (French Federation of Selection Organizations), Paris, France
  6. 6Coop de France (French National Organization of Farming and Agri-food Cooperatives), Paris, France
  7. 7ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), Epidemiology Unit, Laboratory for Animal Health, University Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, France
  8. 8ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), Epidemiology Unit, Laboratory of Lyon, University Lyon, Lyon, France
  1. E-mail for correspondence; kristel.gache.fngds{at}

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In France, Schmallenberg disease surveillance was initiated in January 2012 and maintained ever since within the framework of the French Platform for Animal Health Surveillance (ESA Platform). The surveillance protocol evolved over the years to take into account the evolution of the epidemiological situation (massive viral circulation during the first two vector seasons 2011 and 20121 followed by a less intense viral circulation since the 2013 vector season).2

Since September 2015, the surveillance system has relied on a network of sentinel veterinarians (one sentinel veterinarian per administrative region in metropolitan France) in order to detect a possible return to massive viral circulation on the territory. Sentinel veterinarians are requested to report clinically suspicious cases when congenital malformations that could be attributed to Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are observed in ruminants (arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome [AHS]). A dedicated web interface was built in order to facilitate reporting by the sentinel veterinarians.

During the …

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  • Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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