Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Evaluation of radiography as a screening method for detection and characterisation of congenital vertebral malformations in dogs
  1. Josep Brocal1,
  2. Steven De Decker2,
  3. Roberto José-López1,
  4. Julien Guevar1,
  5. Maria Ortega3,
  6. Tim Parkin1,
  7. Gert Ter Haar2 and
  8. Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana1
  1. 1School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
  2. 2Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, UK
  3. 3Neurology service, Centro Clinico Veterinario Indautxu, Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain
  1. E-mail for correspondence; Rodrigo.GutierrezQuintana{at}


Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) are common in brachycephalic ‘screw-tailed’ dogs; they can be associated with neurological deficits and a genetic predisposition has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiography as a screening method for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic ‘screw-tailed’ dogs by comparing it with CT. Forty-nine dogs that had both radiographic and CT evaluations of the thoracic vertebral column were included. Three observers retrospectively reviewed the images independently to detect CVMs. When identified, they were classified according to a previously published radiographic classification scheme. A CT consensus was then reached. All observers identified significantly more affected vertebrae when evaluating orthogonal radiographic views compared with lateral views alone; and more affected vertebrae with the CT consensus compared with orthogonal radiographic views. Given the high number of CVMs per dog, the number of dogs classified as being CVM free was not significantly different between CT and radiography. Significantly more midline closure defects were also identified with CT compared with radiography. Malformations classified as symmetrical or ventral hypoplasias on radiography were frequently classified as ventral and medial aplasias on CT images. Our results support that CT is better than radiography for the classification of CVMs and this will be important when further evidence of which are the most clinically relevant CVMs is identified. These findings are of particular importance for designing screening schemes of CVMs that could help selective breeding programmes based on phenotype and future studies.

  • vertebral malformation
  • computed tomography
  • radiography
  • dog
  • hemivertebra
View Full Text

Statistics from


  • Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval from the University of Glasgow, School of Veterinary Medicine, was obtained for this study.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Presented at An abstract with some of the results of this study was submitted to the European College of Veterinary Neurology Annual Symposium, September 2016, Edinburgh, UK.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.