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Determination of reference values for intraocular pressure and Schirmer tear test results in clinically normal domestic donkeys (Equus asinus)
  1. Masoud Selk Ghaffari, DVM, PhD1,
  2. Amin Sabzevari, DVM2,
  3. SeyedMehdi Ghamsari, DVM, PhD3 and
  4. Hussein Shad, DVM3
  1. 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran
  2. 2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Gramsar, Iran
  3. 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
  1. E-mail for correspondence; selkghaffari{at}


This study was conducted to establish normal reference range for the Schirmer tear test (STT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal donkeys for use in clinical practice. Sixteen adult Ethiopian domestic donkeys were used in this study. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. STT values were evaluated in both eyes of all donkeys using a commercial STT strip. IOP was measured in both eyes with a Tono-Pen Vet (Reichert. USA) without using regional nerve blocks. STT values for all eyes (n=32) were 22.1±6.9 mm/minute with a range of 13–35 mm/minute. Comparison of mean STT values between right (n=16) and left eyes (n=16) showed no differences (P=0.6). Mean ±sd IOP values by applanation tonometry were 17.8±3.7 mmHg (range 13.5–24.5 mmHg). Comparison of mean IOP values between right (n=16) and left eyes (n=16) showed no differences (P=0.7). This initial survey provides means and ranges for IOP and STT values in donkeys. These data will assist veterinary ophthalmologists in more accurate diagnosis and management of ophthalmic diseases in donkeys, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca and glaucoma

  • ophthalmology
  • donkeys
  • eyes
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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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