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Computed tomographic assessment of equine maxillary cheek teeth anatomical relationships, and paranasal sinus volumes
  1. Tiziana Liuti, DVM, DipECVDI, Pg.CAP, MRCVS, FHEA1,
  2. Richard Reardon, BVetMed(Hons), MVM, PhD, CertES(Orth), DipECVS, MRCVS2 and
  3. Paddy M Dixon, MVB, PhD, FRCVS, DipEVDC (Equine)1,3
  1. 1 Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Diagnostic Imaging, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK
  2. 2 Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK
  3. 3 Veterinary Clinical Science, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK
  1. E-mail for correspondence; tiziana.liuti{at}


Disorders affecting the equine maxillary cheek teeth and paranasal sinuses are relatively common, but limited objective information is available on the dimensions and relationships of these structures in horses of different ages. The aims of this study were to assess age-related changes in the positioning and anatomical relationships of the individual maxillary cheek teeth with the infraorbital canal and maxillary septum and the volumes of the individual sinus compartments. CT and gross examination were performed on 60 normal equine cadaver heads that were aged by their dentition. The intrasinus position of cheek teeth, length of reserve crowns, relationship to the infraorbital canal and measurements of rostral drift and sinus compartment volumes were assessed from CT images. The findings included that Triadan 10 alveoli lay fully or partially in the rostral maxillary sinus (RMS) in 60% of cases. The infraorbital canal lay directly on the medial aspect of the alveolar apex in younger horses. The Triadan 11’sclinical crowns and apices drifted a mean of 2.48 and 2.83 cm more rostral to the orbit, respectively, in the >15 years old vs the <6 years old age group. The mean volumes of sinus compartments ranged from 175 cm3 for the caudal maxillary sinus (CMS) to 4 cm3 for the ethmoidal sinus (ES). This information should be of value in the diagnosis and treatment of equine dental and sinus disorders and as reference values for further studies.

  • anatomy
  • Computed Tomography (ct)
  • dentistry
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  • Competing interests None decared.

  • Ethics approval This study was approved by the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and the Royal Veterinary College Ethical Review Committees.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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