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Differentiating structural from idiopathic epilepsy in cats
  1. Daisuke Hasegawa, DVM, PhD1,
  2. Akos Pakozdy, DVM, PhD, DECVN2 and
  3. Holger A. Volk, DVM, PGCAP, PhD, DipECVN, FHEA, MRCVS3
  1. 1Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2Clinic for Small Animal Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
  3. 3Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK
  1. e-mail: disk-hsgw{at}

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IN 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) ( (Volk 2016) published several consensus reports, including one regarding the definition and classification of canine and feline epilepsy (Berendt and others 2015), and another on the diagnostic approach to canine epilepsy (De Risio and others 2015).

IVETF suggested specific work-up criteria for dogs presenting with recurrent seizures to differentiate three confidence levels for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (De Risio and others 2015). Tier I confidence level is based on a history of two or more unprovoked epileptic seizures occurring at least 24 hours apart, age at epileptic seizure onset being between six months and six years, unremarkable interictal physical and neurological examination, and no significant abnormalities on haematology, standard serum biochemistry and urinalysis. Tier II confidence level is based on the factors listed in tier I and unremarkable fasting and postprandial bile acids, MRI of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Tier III confidence level is based on the factors listed in tier I and II and identification of EEG abnormalities characteristic of seizure disorders.

For cats, a similar …

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