Article Text

Analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus: Biobank and sequence database to support eradication in Scotland
  1. G. C. Russell, BSc, PhD1,
  2. D. M. Grant, BSc1,
  3. S. Lycett, MA, DIC, PhD, MRes, MIET, MInsP, CPhys2,
  4. C. Bachofen, DVM, PhD1,
  5. G. L. Caldow, BVM&S, MSc, CertCHP, DipECBHM, MRCVS, FRAgS5,
  6. P. D. Burr, BSc, BVM&S, PhD, MRCVS6,
  7. K. Davie, BSc, MSc, PhD7,
  8. N. Ambrose, BSc, PhD7,
  9. G. J. Gunn, BVMS, MSc, DipECBHM, RCVS Specialist (Veterinary Epidemiology), MRCVS8 and
  10. R. N. Zadoks, DVM, MSc, PhD1
  1. 1Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Midlothian EH26 0PZ, UK
  2. 2Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow
  3. 5SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services, Allan Watt Building, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian
  4. 6Biobest Laboratories Ltd, Edinburgh Technopole, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PY, UK
  5. 7Animal Health and Welfare Division, Directorate for Agriculture and Rural Economy, Scottish Government, Saughton House, Edinburgh EH11 3XD, UK
  6. 8SRUC Epidemiology Research Unit, An Lochran, Beechwood Campus, Inverness IV2 5NA, UK
  7. 9R. N. Zadoks, is also at Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow
  8. 10C. Bachofen, is currently at Institute of Virology, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland
  9. 11K. Davie is currently at Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Roddinglaw Road, Edinburgh EH12 9FJ, UK
  1. E-mail for correspondence: george.russell{at}


Samples from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)—positive cattle were gathered by Scottish diagnostic laboratories and used to produce a Biobank of samples with associated location and identification data in support of the Scottish BVDV eradication scheme. The samples were subject to direct amplification and sequencing of the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) to define the viral types and subtypes present. From 2693 samples collected prior to 2016, approximately 2300 sequences were obtained, representing 8 BVDV type 1 subtypes. No BVDV type 2 samples were detected. The samples came from all regions of the UK but 66 per cent were from Scotland. Analysis of the sequences showed great diversity in the 5′-UTR, with 1206 different sequences. Many samples carried virus with identical 5′-UTR sequences; often from single locations, but there were also examples of the same sequence being obtained from samples at several different locations. This work provides a resource that can be used to analyse the movement of BVDV strains both within Scotland and between Scotland and other nations, particularly in the latter stages of the Scottish eradication programme, and so inform the advice available to both livestock keepers and policymakers.

  • pestivirus
  • eradication
  • livestock viruses
  • DNA sequences
  • genotypes

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.