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Indirect assessment of stifle angle for improved accuracy of preoperative planning of tibial osteotomy procedures in dogs
  1. D. C. Barnes, MA, VetMB, CertSAS, MRCVS and
  2. M. R. Owen, BVSc BSc PhD DSAS (Orth) DipECVS MRCVS
  1. Dick White Referrals, Station Farm, London Road, Six-Mile-Bottom, Cambridgeshire, CB8 0UH, UK
  1. Email for correspondence: db{at}


To assess reliability of the mechanical axes stifle angle in dogs positioned for radiography with a neutral stifle (neutral stifle angle (nSA)). To investigate radiographic landmarks for assessment of nSA from a collimated radiographic view. One hundred radiographs were taken of normal stifles belonging to 55 skeletally mature medium and large breed dogs, positioned using a repeatable protocol. Radiographs were widely collimated to include the femoral head and the talus. The angle of Blumensaat's line through the intercondylar fossa relative to the Mechanical Axis of the femur (intercondylar fossa angle, IFA), the angle of inclination of a tibial crest tangent line relative to the Mechanical Axis of the tibia (tibial crest angle, TCA) and the tibial plateau angle (TPA) were recorded. Mean nSA was 133.5°. Mean IFA was 155.5°. TCA had a mean of 6.7°. Estimates for nSA were calculated using mean IFA combined with mean TCA (enSA1), mean TPA (enSA2) and the mechanical axis of the tibia (enSA3). Mean percentage error relative was 2.99 per cent for enSA1, 2.82 per cent for enSA2, 1.67 per cent for enSA3. Blumensaat's line provides a consistent radiological feature for assessment of nSA. Assessment of nSA and correction for values varying from 135° may allow more consistent and accurate measurement of patellar tendon angle for presurgical planning.

  • Orthopaedics
  • Canine
  • Cruciate disease
  • Patella tendon angle
  • Stifle
  • Blumensaat's line
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