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FOOT-AND-MOUTH disease virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, causes foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) of cloven-hoofed animals. It is characterised by vesicles in the hoofs, mouth, tongue and nipples (Alexandersen and others 2003, Alexandersen and Mowat 2005). Since FMD is highly contagious and spreads rapidly, control of FMD is very challenging and requires a combination of strategies including detection and elimination of infected animals (Bachrach 1968, Paton and others 2014). While early detection and culling of infected and susceptible animals on the infected premises are pivotal ways to eradicate FMD, vaccination has also been an effective measure to control the spread of FMD (Lombard and others 2007, Elnekave and others 2013, Naranjo and Cosivi 2013, Saeed and others 2015). Vaccinations of cloven-hoofed animals with O1 Manisa have been implemented after a severe outbreak of FMD occurred in South Korea in 2010. Recently, a trivalent vaccine composed of O1 Manisa, A Malaysia 97 and Asia1 Shamir has been used in South Korea (Yoon and others 2012, Park 2013). Vaccination against FMDV reduced the incidence of FMD outbreaks in South Korea. Nonetheless, several side effects including fever, pain, anorexia, lethargy and temporary decrease in milk production and growth rate have been reported among the vaccinated animals in South Korea and other countries (Kaaden and others 1971, Yeruham and others 2001, Park 2013). However, there is limited information of how to improve the FMD vaccination side effects on the …
Provenance: not commissioned; externally peer reviewed
Funding This work was supported by the human resource training programme for regional innovation and creativity through the ministry of education and national research foundation of Korea (NRF-2014H1C1A1067113).
Ethics approval The animal protocol was approved by the Dankook University Animal Care Committee.
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