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LIVER fluke affects over 70 per cent of UK dairy farms (McCann and others 2010). It is known that parasite infection can modulate the host immune reaction, enabling parasite survival but reducing immunity to concurrent infections (Kamal and El Sayed Khalifa 2006). Bovine TB is a big problem in the UK and control is based on accurately diagnosing infected cattle and culling them to remove the source …
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