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Short communication
Serological evidence of infection of dogs with human influenza viruses in Japan
  1. T. Horimoto, DVM, MSc, PhD1,
  2. F. Gen, MSc, PhD1,
  3. S. Murakami, MSc, PhD1,
  4. K. Iwatsuki-Horimoto, DVM, PhD2,
  5. K. Kato, DVM, PhD1,
  6. H. Akashi, DVM, MSc, PhD1,
  7. M. Hisasue, DVM, PhD3,
  8. M. Sakaguchi, DVM, MSc, PhD4,
  9. Y. Kawaoka, DVM, MSc, PhD2 and
  10. K. Maeda, DVM, PhD5
  1. 1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, The University of Tokyo,
    Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
  2. 2Division of Virology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo,
    Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
  3. 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Azabu University, Kanagawa, Japan
  4. 4Department of Veterinary Microbiology I, Azabu University, Kanagawa, Japan
  5. 5Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan
  1. E-mail for correspondence:ahorimo{at}

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Historically, influenza virus has not been regarded as a major pathogen of dogs. However, recent infections of racing and pet dogs with H3N8 virus of equine origin in the USA after 2004 (Crawford and others 2005) and retrospectively in the UK in 2002 (Daly and others 2008), as well as with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian virus in Thailand in 2004 (Songserm and others 2006), revealed that dogs are susceptible to influenza A viruses. These infections caused respiratory disease in the dogs and several proved fatal. Moreover, H3N2 virus of avian origin infected pet dogs in Korea in 2007 (Song and others 2008) and China in 2010 (Li and others 2010), supporting the belief that dogs should be included among the animals that are responsible for interspecies transmission of influenza A virus (Kim and others 2013). Furthermore, there were reports in various parts of the world (Dundon and others 2010 …

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