Serovars and bacteriophage (phage) types were determined for 442 isolates of Salmonella enterica from dogs in the UK submitted to the Scottish Salmonella Reference Laboratory from 1954 to 2012. The most frequent serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (196 isolates; 44.3 per cent), Dublin (40 isolates; 9.0 per cent), Enteritidis (28 isolates; 6.3 per cent), Montevideo (19 isolates; 4.3 per cent), Virchow (10 isolates; 2.3 per cent), Heidelberg (8 isolates; 1.8 per cent) and Derby (8 isolates; 1.8 per cent), along with 55 other recognised serovars among 127 other isolates, and six incompletely classified isolates. Serovars were frequently represented by strains commonly associated with poultry, cattle or pigs and their products. Among 196 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from dogs, the most frequent phage types (definitive types) were the multiple antimicrobial-resistant strains DT104 (62 isolates), DT204c (18 isolates) and DT193 (8 isolates), along with antimicrobial sensitive wild finch strains DT40 (13 isolates) and DT56 variant (8 isolates). Eleven of 28 isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis were phage type 4. S enterica was frequently recovered from faecal or intestinal samples of dogs with diarrhoea, although many dogs had concurrent infection with other enteric pathogens. Salmonella Dublin was recovered from the brain and/or cerebrospinal fluid of two dogs with meningoencephalitis. Salmonella Kedougou was isolated from the joint fluid of a dog with septic arthritis. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Dublin were each recovered from the vaginas of bitches that had aborted. Isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis phage types 1, 4 and 8, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Indiana were isolated from clinically healthy dogs in households where the same strains were recovered from human beings with diarrhoea. The pattern ampicillin-chloramphenicol-spectinomycin-streptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ACSpSSuT) was the most frequent resistance phenotype and was observed in 44 (13.3 per cent) of 330 isolates. Dogs in the UK are exposed to a wide variety of serovars of S enterica, sometimes associated with clinical disease, and represent a zoonotic risk.
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