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Short Communication
Pneumonia caused by influenza A H1N1 2009 virus in farmed American mink (Neovison vison)
  1. J. Åkerstedt, DVM, PhD1,
  2. M. Valheim, DVM, PhD2,
  3. A. Germundsson, Agr, PhD2,
  4. T. Moldal, DVM2,
  5. K-I. Lie, DVM, PhD1,
  6. M. Falk, DVM1 and
  7. O. Hungnes, PhD3
  1. Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P. O. Box 295, 4303 Sandnes, Norway
  2. Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P. O. Box 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway
  3. Department of Virology, Division of Infectious Disease Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P. O. Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway
  1. E-mail for correspondence johan.akerstedt{at}

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IN 2009, a new pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus with gene segments from both North American and Eurasian swine influenza viruses emerged (Trifonov and others 2009). The outbreak started in Mexico, spread to the USA and then worldwide (Peiris and others 2009, Girard and others 2010). The influenza pandemic lasted for more than a year where after the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus subtype became a part of the seasonal influenza in human beings.

In animals, most cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus influenza have been described in pigs (Howden and others 2009, Pereda and others 2010, Moreno and others 2010, Kim and others 2011), while there are case reports from other species such as turkeys, ferrets and cats (Patterson and others 2009, Mathieu and others 2010, Löhr and others 2010). In Norway, several pig farms got infected (Hofshagen and others 2009, Gjerset and others 2011).

This short communication describes an outbreak of respiratory disease in farmed American mink (Neovison vison) where influenza A virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the lung lesions and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR.

In the middle of May 2011, mink showed clinical signs of respiratory disease on a fur farm situated near Stavanger in southwestern Norway. …

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  • Provenance not commissioned; externally peer reviewed

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