By examining larvae from dogs in which the adult stages had been identified, the morphology of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Filaroides osleri, Filaroides hirthi and Crenosoma vulpis from samples of faeces or bronchoalveolar lavage was compared. The tail morphology of the four species was distinctive: A vasorum had a typical cuticular indentation and projection on the dorsal surface of the tail (referred to as the dorsal notch and dorsal spine, respectively) and a smaller indentation on the ventral surface. The tails of the other species are described. A vasorum was significantly longer (mean [sd] 358·4 μm [10·28], range 334 to 380 μm) than the other species (range 229 to 281 μm).
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