Between 0 and 50 per cent of the dogs in eight rural villages in far northern California with a high risk of tickborne diseases were seropositive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii, and between 0 and 10 per cent were seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi. The odds ratio for the co-exposure of individual dogs to B vinsonii berkhoffii and A phagocytophilum was 18·2. None of the diseases was associated with the sex of the dogs, whether they slept out of doors, or whether tick-preventive measures were taken. When the villages were assessed for landscape risk factors, a particularly high seroprevalence for B vinsonii berkhoffii and A phagocytophilum was observed in a village at a relatively high altitude and greater distance from the Pacific coast, and montane hardwood conifer woodland was most associated with a high seroprevalence for these two pathogens.
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