African swine fever in Namibia, Tanzania and Italy (Sardinia)
Bluetongue in previously affected regions of Portugal, Spain and France (Corsica)
Classical swine fever in Russia
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Kenya
Foot-and-mouth disease in Colombia and Hong Kong
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in south-east Asia; Malaysia free of H5N1; outbreak caused by H7 virus (of unknown subtype) in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
New haemagglutinin type (H16) of avian influenza in black-headed gulls in Sweden
Newcastle disease in Bulgaria, Greece and Cyprus
Peste des petits ruminants in Israel
Quarantine restrictions for vesicular stomatitis lifted in the USA; outbreaks reported in Bolivia and Belize; serological presence confirmed in cattle in Colombia
Swine vesicular disease in endemic areas in Italy
New case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Canada; French caprine isolate likely to contain the BSE strain
– These are among matters discussed in the international disease monitoring report for January to March 2005, prepared by DEFRA’s International Animal Health Division
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* THIS article summarises official reports received by DEFRA’s International Animal Health Division (IAHD) on outbreaks of specified animal diseases and other diseases that may be of interest, for January to March 2005. The specified diseases are those high-impact diseases formerly included in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) List A diseases. The OIE stopped using this list in January 2005, and changed the notification system to reflect a new emphasis on the change in the disease status of countries rather than the severity of individual diseases; it no longer emphasises outbreaks in endemic areas. The IAHD continues to report on these specified diseases in countries that trade with the UK and EU member states in the context of their significance to international trade and their potential impact on the UK’s animal health status.
The IAHD also notes new epidemiological developments that may give an early warning of emerging threats to the UK. Where a new disease outbreak could pose a threat, the IAHD carries out a qualitative analysis of the risks to UK livestock. These analyses are published on DEFRA’s website (www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/monitoring/index.htm). The EU and the UK take appropriate safeguard measures to mitigate the potential risks of disease being introduced through legal trade. DEFRA notes that it is also important to recognise the continuing threat to the UK through illegal imports from countries with endemic disease and other routes, for example, highly pathogenic avian influenza or Newcastle disease from migrating birds.
Official information in this article was received from the OIE and the EU Commission, unless otherwise stated. Maps were prepared from official reports received during this period; they do not necessarily reflect the true situation in every country and should not be regarded as definitive. The maps were produced using ESRI Data and Maps CD (2002)
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