Article Text

Use of endoscopy and renal biopsy for the diagnosis of kidney disease in free-living birds of prey and owls
  1. K. Müller, DrMedVet1,
  2. T. Göbel, DrMedVet1,
  3. S. Müller, DrMedVet2,
  4. W. Hermanns, DrMedVet2 and
  5. L. Brunnberg, DrMedVet1
  1. 1 Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, Free University of Berlin, Oertzenweg 19b, D-14163 Berlin, Germany
  2. 2 Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Ludwig-Maximilianis University, Veterinäirstrasse 13, D-80539 Munich, Germany


Eighty-nine free-living birds of prey and owls were examined and blood samples and radiographs were taken. In addition, 126 specimens of renal tissue were obtained without complications, with a mean postbiopsy haemorrhage time of 67 seconds. On average, the samples were 2.2 mm long, 1.3 mm wide and 1.0 mm deep and they all contained proximal and distal tubuli and from one to 89 glomeruli; 49 of them contained from one to four intralobular veins, and on average each sample contained 10.7 per cent air sac tissue; 113 of the 126 samples could be evaluated histologically.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.