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Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in llamas (Lama glama)
  1. J. A. Jarvinen, PhD, DVM1,
  2. J. A. Miller, PhD2 and
  3. D. D. Oehler, MS2
  1. 1 Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 5001 1, USA
  2. 2 Knipling-Bushland US Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Kerrville, Texas 78028, USA


The pharmacokinetic behaviour of ivermectin was investigated in adult llamas (Lama glama) by using high performance liquid chromatography with a lower limit of quantification of 2 ng/ml to measure its concentration in serum. Llamas were treated with one of three commercial formulations (injectable, pour-on or oral paste) at dosages recommended by the manufacturer, or with an experimental injectable sustainedrelease formulation. In five llamas given 1 per cent ivermectin subcutaneously at 200 μg/kg the median peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 3 ng/ml and the area under the serum concentration-time curve (Auc) was 13-5 In six llamas treated topically with 0-5 per cent ivermedin pour-on at 500 μg/kg Cmax was 2-5 ng/ml or less and the AUC was 7.75 or less. In seven llamas with measurable concentrations of ivermectin, the median times to peak serum concentration (tmax) were six days after subcutaneous injection and seven days after treatment with the pour-on formulation. In six llamas, the serum concentration of ivermectin remained less than 2 ng/ml for 124 hours after treatment with a 1-87 per cent oral paste at 200 μg/kg. In five llamas treated subcutaneously with 25 per cent ivermectin sustainedrelease microspheres at 1500 μg/kg, the median Cmax was 5 ng/ml and the median AUC was 224

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