One hundred cases of monocytic ehrlichiosis diagnosed in Israeli dogs were confirmed by the presence of anti-Ehrlichia canis indirect immunofluorescent antibody titres greater than 1:40. The disease occurred in all age groups and there was no sex predilection. German shepherd dogs were significantly over-represented whereas crossbreed dogs were significantly under-represented (P>0.0005). The most common clinical signs were depression, lethargy, lymphadenomegaly, fever, anorexia, panting, pale mucous membranes and bleeding, of which epistaxis was most common. Thrombocytopenia, anaemia (mainly normocytic normochromic) and lymphopenia were the predominant haematological findings. Forty-nine of the 100 cases were followed up for a year. Thirty-two dogs survived and 17 died. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the effect of host, environmental, and haematological prognostic factors on survival. It was concluded that severe anaemia, severe leucopenia, pancytopenia, a tendency to bleed (especially epistaxis) and being a German shepherd dog were important indicators of poor survival in cases of monocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs.
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