Thirteen cases of a disease with a low morbidity and very high mortality in horses in Nigeria are described; the disease is characterised by fever (rectal temperature ≥40°C), generalised muscle spasms, ataxia, increased respiratory and heart rates and terminal lateral recumbency. The illness generally lasts three to five days but durations of 12 to 30 hours have been observed. Laboratory investigations, including histopathology and serology suggest a viral aetiology, possibly an alphavirus of the equine encephalitis group.
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