Article Text

Guidelines for the interpretation of laboratory findings in birds and mammals with unknown reference ranges: plasma biochemistry
  1. SC Gascoyne,
  2. PM Bennett,
  3. JK Kirkwood and
  4. CM Hawkey
  1. Department of Veterinary Science, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park.


The results of analyses of plasma samples from healthy and sick adult birds and mammals of a wide range of species were used to calculate reference ranges and clinical ranges for 11 biochemical variables (calcium, sodium, chloride, total protein, albumin, globulin, inorganic phosphate, potassium, bicarbonate, urea and creatinine concentrations) in six mammalian Orders (Primata, Carnivora, Pinnipedia, Proboscidea, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla) and six avian Orders (Ciconiiformes, Gruiformes, Pelecaniformes, Psittaciformes, Falconiformes and Strigiformes). The patterns of variation between Orders for the different biochemical variables were then used to provide guidelines for the interpretation of plasma biochemistry results in the species in these Orders for which there are no reference data. The observed clinical ranges provide an indication of the potential diagnostic value of each variable.

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