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B-mode real time ultrasonographic imaging of the testis and epididymis of sheep and goats
  1. N Ahmad,
  2. DE Noakes and
  3. AL Subandrio
  1. Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire.


Ten male goats and five rams were examined from 11 and 15 weeks of age, respectively, for six months to study the ultrasonic appearance of normal testes and epididymides before and after puberty. Five adult rams with lesions of these organs were also examined. A portable, B-mode, real time scanner fitted with a 7.5 MHz, linear array transducer was used. The testis appeared as a homogeneous and moderately echogenic structure with a centrally located mediastinum testis represented by an hyperechogenic line in images taken in the longitudinal plane and by an almost circular spot in transverse images. The testicular capsule and skin were evident as a distinct hyperechogenic line encircling the testicular parenchyma. A thin non-echogenic layer of fluid, presumably between two layers of tunica vaginalis, was observed. The tail of the epididymis was more heterogeneous and less echogenic than the testis. The epididymal head was also less echogenic but homogeneous in texture, and the body of the epididymis was difficult to image. The pampiniform plexus was easily identified as numerous convoluted sonolucent tubular structures. The ultrasonic images of possible cases of epididymitis, spermatocele, testicular cyst and abscess and scrotal hernia are described.

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