The precise aetiology of enzootic haematuria in cattle remains unknown. The involvement of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinium) appears certain because of the close association between bracken fern infested farms and enzootic haematuria. Several toxic principles have been identified but the main carcinogenic element remains to be conclusively demonstrated. More recently, bovine papilloma virus has been implicated in the aetiology of enzootic haematuria. Its possible interaction with bracken fern carcinogen is discussed.
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