TABLE 2:

Key stakeholders and criteria to be considered in clinical veterinary ethical decision-making

Key stakeholderCriteriaRelationship domains
Companion animalPatient’s best interests
  • Health prognoses (short and long term)

  • Experienced quality of life

    • Positive welfare impact

    • Negative welfare impact

Clinician-patient
Client-patient
ClinicianEvidence base for therapy
Ability to carry out the procedure
Animal-focused criteria
  • Consistent with animal’s interests

Profession-focused criteria
  • Personal responsibility

  • Institutional responsibility

Motivation for carrying out the procedure (academic progression, financial gain, reputation)
Clinician-patient
Professional responsibility
ClientEconomic constraints
Client compliance
Client’s perspective (versus professional’s perspective)
Client-clinician
Client-patient