TABLE 1:

Questions included in the questionnaire sent to owners of pugs one, five and eight years of age and registered in the Swedish Kennel Club. When limited or fixed sets of responses were available they are shown in brackets

Questions related to gaitQuestions related to general health
Normal or abnormal gait?
  • Age when abnormal gait was first noticed (six months; one, two, three, four, five, six, seven or eight years of age)

  • Onset of abnormal gait (acute, insidious)

  • Course of abnormal gait (constant, progressing, improving)

  • What legs are involved in the abnormal gait? (thoracic limbs, pelvic limbs or both)

  • Symmetrical or asymmetrical involvement of legs

  • Ability to jump up and down a sofa

  • Signs indicating abnormal wearing of the nails or the skin on the dorsal aspect of the paws

  • What legs are involved in abnormal wearing of the nails and/or the skin on the dorsal aspect of paws? (thoracic limbs, pelvic limbs or both)

  • When did the abnormal wearing of the nails and/or the skin on the dorsal aspect of the paws start? (as a puppy, at one year of age, more than six months ago, more than one year ago)

  • Reluctance to walk on specific grounds (asphalt, parquet, gravel, grass)

  • Use of paw protection

  • Signs indicating pain (vocalising, reluctance to go for walks, resenting being lifted, unwilling to wear a collar, difficulty finding a resting position, avoiding specific positions, unwilling to be petted and irritable mood)

  • Tail carriage (double curled, tight, weak)

  • Incontinence (faecal, urinary)

  • Incontinence seen after laying down, during playing, during eating, when excited

  • Difficulties posturing while urinating/defecating

  • Describe your pug’s clinical sign (owner allowed to respond freely)

  • Any previous traumatic event (owner allowed to respond freely)

  • Veterinary examination performed due to abnormal gait, wearing of the nails and/or the skin on the dorsum of the paws

  • Any relatives with unsound gait

Has your pug ever shown any of these signs or been diagnosed with any of these disorders?
  • Seizures

  • Syncope

  • Dyspnoea

Has your dog had surgery for dyspnoea?
  • Pigmentary keratopathy

  • Corneal ulcers

  • Abnormal scratching around neck/ears/head

  • Chronic skin problems

  • Demodicosis

  • Pug dog encephalitis

  • Fly snapping

  • Licking the air

Is the dog alive?
In case the dog is no longer alive:
  • Was the dog euthanased or did it die?

  • Why did the dog die/why was the dog euthanased? (gait abnormality, dyspnoea, skin problems, incontinence, epilepsy, pug dog encephalitis, eye problems, other disorder)