Paper | Country | Dairy (D), beef (B) or beef fattening (F) | Endemic (End) or epidemic (Epi) | Standard (St) or severe (Se) | Method of economic assessment | Costs | Source of costs and losses | Losses | Figure produced per year per cow (year as per paper unless stated, and exchange rate if relevant) | Updated figure (£) |

Bennett59 | UK | D | End/Epi | St | Decision analysis | Tx (TI), Tx (PI) | Literature | A, ML (TI), ML (PI) Im, TI, Inf, Con, M (PI), M (TI) YGC (PI), YGC (TI) | £13.12–£98.96 | 24.50–185 |

Pasman and others30 | Netherlands | D | End/Epi | St | Markov chain (MC) simulation model | D, Dis | Literature, estimation, observation | M (TI), YGC (TI), M (PI), ML (PI), ML (TI), Inf, A, YGC (PI), Con, PC | Year 1 cost – 49.55 Dfl = naive cost – 852.71 Dfl 2.77 NLG/£ =£17.9–£307 | 32.10–552 |

Sørensen and others32 | Denmark | D | End/Epi | St | Stochastic simulation model | F, B | Literature | A, Inf, YGC (PI), Con, M (PI) | 0–10,000 DKr (50 cow herd)=200 DKr 9.73 DKr/£ ( 1993) £0–£20.6 | 0–37.80 |

Carman and others29 | Canada | D | Epi | Se | Case study | NA | Farm data | M (PI), M (TI), ML (PI), ML (TI), A | $C40,000 – £100,000 per herd (40–191 cows) = $209–$2500. $C1.94/£ (1993) | 198–2370 |

Bennett and others33 | Great Britain | D/B | End/Epi | St | Cost–benefit spreadsheet model | NA | Research, VLA | ML, A, M, PC | £5.2–£31.0 m (3.9 m cows, 1996) =£1.33–£7.95 | 2.25–13.50 |

Houe13 | Denmark | D | End/Epi | St/Se | Cost–benefit spreadsheet model | NA | Field cases, literature | R, TI, ML (TI), M (TI), A, Inf, Con, YGC (PI), M (PI) | US$20–US$57 per calving $1.75/£ ( 1992) | 21.30–60.90 |

Dufour and others60 | France | NA | NA | NA | Simulation model | NA | NA | NA | 25.5 F = €4.21 €1.75/£ | 3.76 |

Bennett34 | UK | D | End/Epi | St | Decision analysis spreadsheet | NA | Bennett59 | M (PI), M (TI), Con, A, Inf, ML (TI), TI | £25.2–£90.7 (1999) | 39.50–142 |

Chi and others35 | Canada | D | End/Epi | St | Partial budget, risk and sensitivity analyses | Vet, Tx, L, Rep | Research | ML (A), ML (TI), PC, M (PI), M (TI), A, YGC (PI), Inf | $C2422/50 cow herd =48.44 $C2.36/£ | 30.10 |

Bennett38 | Great Britain | D/B | End/Epi | St | Cost–benefit spreadsheet model | NA | Bennett and others33 | ML, A, M, PC | £2–£12 m (3.7 m cows, 1999) =£0.54–£3.24 | 0.84–5.06 |

Houe24 | Worldwide | D | End/Epi | St/Se | Review | NA | Review paper | NA | US$10–US$40 m/million calvings US$1.63/£ | 8.74–35.0 |

Stott and others39 | Scotland | B | End/Epi | St | Linear programming | BS, Rep, L | Literature, SAC, vet interviews | Im, Con, YGC (TI), M (PI), A, Inf, PC | £20 status susceptible £22 status unknown | 28.50 31.40 |

Gunn and others40 | UK | D | Epi | St | MC simulation model | NA | Literature | ML, M (PI) | £10,300 (low median) £10,400 (high median) £20.6–£20.8/cow/year | 29.40–29.70 (29.50) |

Gunn and others41 | Scotland | B | End/Epi | St | MC simulation model | Vet, L, Dx, Tx, Rep | Literature, SAC, vet interviews | Im, Con, YGC (TI), A, M (PI), TI, Inf, PC | Transmission scenario low – £32.74, intermediate – £37.06, high – £40.53 | 45.30–56.10 (51.30) |

Fourichon and others42 | France | D | Epi/End | St/Se | Partial budget, no stochasticity | Rep, Tx, | Literature, vet interviews | A, Inf, ML (A), M (PI), ML (TI), Mas, SCC, RP, M, TI | €75 (moderate) – 133 (severe) €1.46/£ (no milk quota) | 69.20–123 |

Gunn and others43 | Europe | D | End | St | Stochastic simulation model | Vet, Tx, Rep | Expert opinion | Inf, PC, Mas, E, R, ML | 22% BVD-free annuity/farm >£4200/65 cow = £64.60 | 87.00 |

Valle and others44 | Norway | D/B | End | St | Stochastic simulation model | Vet, Tx | Previous study on herd level effects | Inf, ML (TI), ML (PI), PC, M (TI), M (PI), TI | 40–50 m Norwegian krone/year = 77 Norwegian krone per calving 10.5 Norwegian krone/£ ( 1993) | 13.50 |

Bennett and IJpelar22 | Great Britain | D/B | End | St | Cost–benefit spreadsheet model | D, Vac | Bennett,38 expert opinion | ML, Inf, PC, M, A | £25.4–£61.1 m (3.2 m cows) = £7.94–£19.1 | 10.70–25.70 |

Compton and others45 | New Zealand | D | End | St | Case analysis | NA | Farm data | A, Inf, ML | NZ$90 NZ$2.83/£ | 41.50 |

Heuer and others46 | New Zealand | D | End | St | Partial budget, retrospective case vs control | F | Farm data | Inf, A, (PR, 1st serve CR, CCI) PC, ML, M (PI) | NZ$87 NZ$2.72/£ | 40.00 |

Barbudo and others48 | Scotland | B | End/Epi | St | MC and epidemiology model | B, F | Literature, Gunn and others41 | Inf, A | £22–£43 | 26.50–51.80 |

Reichel and others47 | New Zealand | D | End/Epi | St/Se | Decision analysis | Separate costings | Voges and others61 | M (PI), ML (PI), Mas (PI), YGC (PI) | NZ$11,344 (322 cows/herd)=NZ$35.19 NZ$2.83/£ ( 2006) | 16.20 |

Hessman and others3 | USA | F | End | St/Se | Partial budget, retrospective case vs control | Tx (TI), Tx (PI), F | Farm data | TI, R, Im, YGC (PI), YGC (TI), M (PI), M (TI), MD, PC | US$41.8–US$93.5 $1.56/£ | 32.40–72.50 |

Stott and others49 | UK | B | End/Epi | St/Se | Simulation model | Rep, Vet, L (£1) | Literature, expert opinion | Im, Con, YGC (PI), YGC (TI), A, Inf, M (PI), PC | £0–£40 ( 2008) | 48.10 |

Häsler and others50 | Switzerland | D/B | End | St | Partial budget spreadsheet model | Vet, Tx (TI), Tx (PI), D, Dis, L | Literature, expert opinion | M (PI), M (TI), PC, A, ML (PI), ML (TI), TI | 16.04 m CHF (1.5 m cows) =10.7 CHF 1.99CHF/£ ( 2008) | 6.46 |

Stott and others18 | Ireland | D | End/Epi | St | Simulation model | Vet, Tx (PI), Tx (TI), Rep | Weldegebriel and others17 | ML (TI), ML (A) PC, Im, Mas, Inf, E, R, TI | €63 €1.23/£ = £51.2 | 54.50 |

B | Simulation model | Vet, Rep Tx (TI), Tx (PI), L, | Stott and others,49 SAC, vet interviews | Im, PC, Con, YGC (PI) YGC (TI), A, Inf, M (PI) | €32 (€29 small – €38 large) €1.23/£ = £21.1 | 20.40–26.70 22.50 | ||||

F | Partial budget MC spreadsheet | Vet, Tx (TI), L, Tx (PI) | Expert panel, Gunn and others41 | YGC (TI), YGC (PI) | €19 €1.23/£ = £15.4 | 16.40 | ||||

Smith and others51 | USA | B | End | St | Stochastic model | NA | Literature, surveys, expert opinion | A, M (TI), M (PI), TI, YGC (TI), YGC (PI), Inf, Con | US$205,429 (460 cows/10 years) = $44.66 US$1.65/£ = £27.0 | 27.30 |

Knific and Zgajnar52 | SIovenia | D | End | St | MC simulation | Rep, F, Vet, Tx, | Jeric (2011) | ML (TI), ML (PI), PC, YGC (TI), YGC (PI), A, M (TI), M (PI), Inf, Mas, RP | €189 €1.24/£ = £152.4 | 154 |

Szabára and Ózsvári53 | Hungary | D | End | St | Partial budget estimations | NA | Own calculations | ML (TI), A, M (TI), M (PI), PC, | €13.7 €1.24/£ = £11.0 | 11.10 |

Santman-Berends and others54 | Netherlands | D | End | St | Stochastic simulation model | Vac, D, Rep, Vet | Hogeveen55 | A, Con, YGC (PI), YGC (TI), ML, TI, PC, M (TI), M (PI), Inf | €30.8 m/year (1.6 m dairy cows) = $19.25 (2014) 1.24€/£ = £15.5 | 15.70 |

Karabozhilova and others19 | England | D/B | End | St | Partial budget analysis | Tx (TI), Tx (PI), Dis, Rep, Vet, D, F, B | Literature, case reports, Häsler and others50 | M (PI), M (TI), PC, ML (PI), ML (TI), TI, Inf, A | Dairy – £21.32 and £42.63; beef – £26.78 and £53.56 | 31.50 40.20 |

Premature cull costs may include replacement costs minus slaughter value. TI losses may also be represented by treatment costs.

A, abortion; B, decreased bedding costs; BS, biosecurity costs; BVD, bovine viral diarrhoea; Cd, newborn calf death; Con, congenital defects; D, diagnostics; Dis, disposal costs; E, enteritis; F, decreased feed costs; Im, immunosuppression; Inf, infertility (days open, returns to service); L, increased labour costs; M (PI) (MD included), mortality of PIs; M (TI), mortality of acutely infected animals; Mas, mastitis; ML (A), milk loss following abortion; ML (PI), milk loss from PI cow; ML (TI), milk loss from acute infection; NA, (data) not available or applicable; PC, premature culling; R, respiratory disease; Rep, replacement costs; RP, retained placenta; SAC, Scottish Agricultural College; SCC, decreased milk quality; TI, acute infection; Tx (PI), PI treatment costs; Tx (TI), acute infection treatment costs; V, vaccination; Vet, veterinary cost; YGC (PI), youngstock growth check of PIs; YGC (TI), youngstock growth check of acute infected animals;