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Prevalence of and risk factors for FIV and FeLV infection in two shelters in the United Kingdom (2011–2012)
  1. Jenny Stavisky1,
  2. Rachel Sarah Dean, BVMS PhD MSc DSAM(fel) MRCVS2 and
  3. Michael Henry Molloy, BVM BVS MRCVS3
  1. 1Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK
  2. 2Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK
  3. 3Culverden Veterinary Group, Tunbridge Wells, UK
  1. E-mail for correspondence; Jenny.stavisky{at}nottingham.ac.uk

Abstract

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infections in cats presented to two RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) animal rehoming centres and to identify risk factors for infection. All cats presented at each centre between August 2011 and August 2012 were subjected to a patient-side test for FeLV/FIV on entry. Kittens under three months and cats euthanased within a short time of presentation were excluded from the study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to separately determine risk factors for FeLV and FIV infections. At shelter A, the prevalence of FIV infection was 11.4 per cent (54/474) and FeLV infection was 3 per cent (14/473), with two FIV/FeLV coinfections identified. At shelter B, the prevalence of FIV infection was 3 per cent (4/135) and FeLV infection was 0 per cent (0/135). Cats at shelter A were significantly more likely than those at shelter B to test positive for FIV (p=0.0024) and FeLV (p=0.048). Male cats were more likely to be infected with FIV (odds ratio 27.1, p=0.001), and thin body condition and musculoskeletal disease were associated with risk of FeLV. Overall, FIV-positive and FeLV-positive cats were significantly older (median ages 5.1 and 4.75 years, respectively) than the uninfected populations (median ages 3.4 and 3.5 years, respectively). This study shows that the prevalence of these diseases varies between shelter populations. Local knowledge combined with the risk factors identified may be useful in focusing resources for population testing strategies.

  • infectious diseases
  • shelter medicine
  • feline immunodeficiency
  • feline leukaemia virus
  • prevalence

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Footnotes

  • International Society for Feline Medicine, 2013British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress, 2013

  • Funding The Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine is supported by an unrestrictive grant from Elanco Animal Health and the University of Nottingham.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval This project has been ethically reviewed and approved by a panel at The University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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