Statistics from Altmetric.com
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, an economically important swine bacterial infection (Gottschalk 2012). It affects mainly the respiratory tract of pigs and occurs in all pig-keeping countries. The clinical disease in its outbreak presentation is relatively well controlled in the USA and Canada, but it is still a significant problem in Latin American, Asian and some European countries (Gottschalk 2012). Its importance derives from the fact that it can cause pneumonia that results in death; clinical disease may also become chronic or subclinical in successive batches of pigs and cause losses due to reduced production and increased costs of medication or vaccination (Gottschalk 2012).
A pleuropneumoniae strains are classified on the basis of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) requirement for growth into biovar I (NAD dependent) and biovar II (NAD independent) (Pohl and others 1983). A pleuropneumoniae biotype I has been divided into 13 serotypes, and biotype II into 2 serotypes, for a total of 15 serotypes, although some exceptions occur (Gottschalk 2012). Serotyping, based on antigenic characteristics of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), is still an important tool to epidemiologically study A pleuropneumoniae strains. The distribution of prevalent serotypes recovered from diseased animals significantly varies in different continents (Gottschalk 2012). Serotyping is traditionally performed by serological methods (Mittal and others 1992). However, several cross-reactions are usually observed. Some of these cross-reactions are due to common epitopes present at the level of the long-chain polysaccharides within the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This is the case, for example, with serotypes 1/9/11, serotypes 4/7 and serotypes 3/6/8/15 (Gottschalk 2012). In order to …