Sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) is a possible side effect of cyclophosphamide which can severely impact quality of life. Mesna and diuresis are effective in human medicine to prevent SHC. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of mesna versus diuresis with furosemide in preventing SHC in dogs treated with cyclophosphamide within a multidrug chemotherapy induction protocol for malignant lymphoma. Medical records of dogs treated at the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, Munich, between 1997 and 2009 were analysed retrospectively. Of the 131 dogs included, 33 received no prophylaxis (group 1), 43 received mesna (group 2), and 55 received furosemide (group 3). Age, gender, breed, bodyweight, body surface area, dose and application method of cyclophosphamide, and the method of SHC prophylaxis were compared between dogs with and without SHC. Six dogs (4.6 per cent) developed SHC. The incidence of SHC in groups 1, 2 and 3 was 4/33 (12.1 per cent), 1/43 (2.3 per cent), and 1/55 (1.8 per cent), respectively. Dogs receiving either mesna or furosemide were significantly less likely to develop SHC (P=0.03). Otherwise no significant differences were found. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the efficacy and the medical indication of mesna and furosemide for prevention of cyclophosphamide-induced SHC.
- Canine lymphoma