The objective of this study was to perform an analytical validation of a commercially available ELISA kit (human adiponectin) for urinary adiponectin determination in dogs, and to evaluate urinary adiponectin in dogs with glomerular injury. For this purpose, urine samples from three healthy dogs and three dogs with diagnosed kidney disease were used for analytical validation of the method. In order to evaluate possible influence of kidney damage on urinary adiponectin, serum and urine samples from six healthy and 58 dogs with leishmaniasis were included. The diseased dogs were allocated to three groups according to their urine protein/creatinine (UPC) ratio as non-proteinuric (NP), borderline proteinuric (BP), and proteinuric (P). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were lower than 10 per cent and 12 per cent, respectively. Dilutions of canine urine samples resulted in linear regression equations close to 1. Mean recovery was of 112 per cent. The detection limit was 0.75 ng/ml. Urinary adiponectin and urinary adiponectin/creatinine (UAC) ratio showed significantly higher values in urine of P group dogs compared with healthy, NP and BP dogs. In conclusion, an ELISA kit can be used for precise and accurate urinary adiponectin measurement in dogs. Urinary adiponectin is increased in dogs with proteinuria suggesting its possible use as a marker of kidney damage.